**EXAMPLE 1) **

**1. Figure out the size.
*** Ignore the sharps or flats when you count the size.

* Count each pitch, including the bottom and top.

**C – D – E – F**

so, the size is

**4th**.

**2. Figure out the number of half steps.**

The pitches within the range are C# – D – D# – E – F

(**C#-D**, **D-D#**, **D#-E**, and **E-F**),

so the number of half steps is **4**.

**3.** To be a perfect 4th, it needs five half steps. This interval has four half steps in size 4, so it is a **diminished 4th**.

**EXAMPLE 2)**

**1. Figure out the size.
*** Ignore the sharps or flats when you count the size.

* Count each pitch, including the bottom and top.

**A – B – C – D – E – F**

The size is

**6th**.

**2. Figure out the number of half steps.
**
The pitches within the range are Ab – A – A# – B – C – C# – D – D# – E – F – F#,
so the number of the half steps is

**10**.

**3.** A major 6^{th} has nine half steps, but this interval has ten half steps in size 6. It is an **augmented 6th**.

** **

**EXAMPLE 3)**

To build a **diminished 7th on B**:

**1. Figure out the 7th from B.
**B – C – D – E – F – G – A,
so the top pitch should be

**A**(or

**A something [A# or Ab]**).

**2. Figure out the number of half steps.**

A major 7th has eleven half steps, so a diminished 7th has **nine half steps**.

B – C – C# – D – D# – E – F – F# – G – G#(or Ab)

**3.** Since the top pitch should be an A (or A something), the answer is **Ab**.